A study of the long term changes in the electromagnetic environment using data from continuous monitoring sensors in Greece

Authors: Manassas, A.; Apostolidis, C.; Iakovidis, S.; Babas, D.; Samaras, T.

Scientific Reports 2023, 13, 13784.https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-41034-3


Owing to the advancement of wireless technologies, there is a strong public perception of increasing exposure to Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). The aim of this study is to determine the evolution of EMF in the environment, and consequently, human exposure to them, over a period of about two decades, spanning from the end of 2003 until February 2022. The study is based on data collected by two non-ionizing radiation monitoring networks in Greece. The networks consist of fixed EMF sensors that register the RMS electric field value every 6 min, on a 24 h basis. We used the Seasonal–Trend decomposition method using (LOESS), known as the STL method to decompose the time series into trend, seasonal, and noise components. Additionally, since the sensors include frequency filters for separating the cellular frequencies, the recorded data were used to identify the exposure contribution by cellular networks in comparison to other EMF sources. The study indicates that RF-EMF do not explicitly decrease or increase but rather fluctuate over time. Similarly, the contribution of mobile cellular networks to the total field change over time.