Statistical Analysis of RF-EMF Exposure Induced by Cellular Wireless Networks in Public Transportation Facilities of the Paris Region

Authors: Zhang Y.; Wang S.; Chikha W-B.; Liu J.; Zheng C.; Samaras T.; Wiart, J.

IEEE Access 2024, pp. 1-1.


Wireless communications are increasingly used today. Despite such use, there is a significant perception of risk which makes exposure monitoring a significant concern today. The work described in this article was carried out within the framework of the European SEAWave project and the French Beyond5G project. The exposure assessment was evaluated using a personal exposimeter (MVG EMF Spy) whose compactness and ease of use make it more suitable and portable than a system combining measuring probes and spectrum analyzers. Measurements were carried out on the cellular frequency bands used by 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G, as well as that of Wi-Fi, in different modes of public transportation (RER, metro, tramway, bus, and train) circulating in the Paris region. The measurements have been analyzed by frequency band, type of public transportation, and type of environment encountered. For each set of measurements (e.g., metro lines, tramways), the mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis were evaluated and analyzed. For all exposure measurements taken in the 700, 800, 900, 1800, 2100, 2600, and 3500MHz frequency bands, the overall average values are 0.39, 0.43, 0.30, 0.21, 0.18, 0.24 and 0.18Vm -1 , respectively. These measurements have, in all cases, a significant dispersion as shown by the ratios of standard deviations to mean values. The well-known K-means clustering technique was applied to these four parameters for different subsets of data. The number of clusters k = 3 has been chosen based on the analysis of the optimal value of k for the current dataset. Our analysis indicates that the first group’s members display the highest mean values with moderate variance and the lowest values for the third and fourth moments. The second cluster is distinguished by points with large mean and variance, accompanied by moderate skewness and kurtosis. Conversely, the third group comprises points with the smallest mean and variance values, yet the largest measurements for the third and fourth moments.